From cave drawings to computer design. The History of Visual Communication sums up several thousand years of design with a few nice examples. It doesn’t focus on art history itself, but in fact how graphic design has evolved as a way of communication and how it has been influenced by its time and technology at had.
There are some nice examples such as the evolution of alphabets, the printing press, poster design, cartography and so and on and on. It’s probably impossible to classify everything, but it’s a good place to start if one is looking for some inspiration from the past.